M2M Gekko PAUT Phased Array Instrument with TFM, UT, TOFD (2023) (2023)

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Be the best inspector you can be

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Gekko® is a field-proven flaw detector offering PAUT, UT, TOFD and TFM through the streamlined user interface Capture™. Released in 32:128, 64:64 or 64:128 channel configurations, M2M Gekko combines high-resolution and speed while reducing inspectors’ training time.


Reinventing High-definition Portable UT

Pioneering real-time TFM since 2013, Gekko innovation keeps being driven by market applications. Used in accredited training centers and ready for TFM standards, it benefits from advanced algorithms through a streamlined software user interface (Capture). Simply powerful, Gekko brings the latest technology at your fingertips.

Built for All-level UT Inspectors

With continuously added tools in one standalone application, Capture eases the inspection process and reduces operator errors. Without the need to use third-party software to load basic and advanced procedures, all-level UT inspectors have access to performance through a visual and guided interface. Capture offers a quick way to improve PAUT knowledge and requires minimum training for phased array inspectors.

M2M Gekko PAUT Phased Array Instrument with TFM, UT, TOFD (2023) (1)


  • Increased accuracy with high-resolution imaging
  • Advanced defect analysis with Total Focusing Method (TFM)
  • Robust field unit with high battery autonomy
  • Easy setup with embedded scan plans
  • Evolutive software following inspectors feedback


  • Multi-group weld inspection procedures fully covered
  • HTHA and hydrogen damages inspection with TFM
  • Thick welds and CRA/stainless steel weld inspection enhanced with 128-element aperture
  • Corrosion mapping of large areas (up to 5 × 5 m [16.4 × 16.4 ft] / 1 mm [0.04 in] step)
  • Complex geometry dedicated solution for nozzle and fillet welds (Y and T joints)

Want to see Gekko in action? Book a demo!

Designed for the Field

Gekko, the #1 PAUT unit with Total Focusing Method (TFM), has been upgraded based on inspectors' feedback. Offering both conventional UT, TOFD and advanced PAUT, Gekko is the most versatile unit adapted to field conditions.

A Complete PAUT Portable Unit

Gekko includes all basics and advanced UT features in a reinforced compact casing designed for field use. It natively comes with conventional UT, TOFD and all beam-forming phased array UT techniques for single-beam and multi-group inspection and its 3-encoded axis capabilities make the Gekko ready for any challenging inspection. This rugged PAUT equipment also offers real-time TFM/FMC (Full Matrix Capture) and Adaptive TFM techniques.

(Video) M2M GEKKO - Discover the most powerful PAUT/TFM flaw detector and be the best inspector you can be.

Portable & Robust

Bumpers and connectors are designed for robustness and accessories versatility. The bright resistive touch screen allows outdoor use in rough conditions. Powered by 2 hot-swappable batteries, Gekko now reaches up to 6 hours of autonomy and becomes the ultimate reference in its product range. Designed for IP66 with a drop test rating in accordance with MIL-STD-810G, the rugged enclosure can withstand the harshest site conditions.

Fast Connectivity Solution

The connectivity solutions—dongle-activated Wi-Fi™, USB 3.0 connector and Gigabit Ethernet output—allow to speed up data transfer and to remotely control your inspection in challenging conditions (TeamViewer license included). Moreover, the 256 GB SSD makes the operator’s work very comfortable with unlimited data file size, thus saving time in the field.

Water and Drop Test

(Video) Eddyfi Technologies Gekko®: the most powerful PAUT/TFM flaw detector

M2M Gekko PAUT Phased Array Instrument with TFM, UT, TOFD (2023) (2)

No Compromise on Performance

The innovative electronics offers up to 128 channels, great signal quality and TFM resolution for improved detection and confidence. It now reaches a high scan speed and productivity.

Compatible With Most Accessories

Coming with an IPEX type PA connector and a LEMO16 encoder, Gekko is compatible with Eddyfi® accessories and most probes and scanners on the market. For other configurations, Eddyfi can provide the adapter to ensure compatibility with your current accessory.

Ask an Expert

Streamlined Workflow

Powered by Capture, the new generation Gekko has been designed toeasethe setup process andsave timefor the inspectors operating in tough environments.

The newly added onboard scan plan and analysis features join the popular 3-click wizards for evaluation of material velocities, amplitude balancing of the transducer, flat and curved wedge calibration, as well as theautomated TCG.

Enriched to offer an all-in-one inspection solution—from application design to inspection and reporting—Capture offers the latest phased array technologies in a couple of clicks.

M2M Gekko PAUT Phased Array Instrument with TFM, UT, TOFD (2023) (3)

M2M Gekko PAUT Phased Array Instrument with TFM, UT, TOFD (2023) (4)

Unique Features

  • Complete toolbox for TFM including TCG calibration
  • High-resolution TFM imaging up to 128 elements
  • 3-axis nozzle inspection with live overlay display
  • 3-axis paintbrush for composite and corrosion mapping
  • Live display of fillet weld inspection
  • Real-time Adaptive TFM (ATFM) for inspection of wavy surfaces

Ask an Expert

(Video) Eddyfi Technologies Gekko phased array instrument with 3-axis scanner

Exclusive Content

Workshop Capture 3.2 for welds


Pause-café avec Eddyfi | Inspection de soudures à l’aide d’une configuration multigroupes TFM

Coffee Break presented in French


Performance des outils d’analyse Capture pour l'inspection de soudures (PAUT, TOFD et TFM)

Workshop presented in French.

Ultrasons multi-éléments et TFM : puissance combinée pour l'inspection de structures critiques

Workshop presented in French.


Life is better with TFM: How can the game-changing method enhance your inspections in real-time

In this Webinar, you’ll learn:

  • How Eddyfi Technologies, as TFM pioneers, implemented new options for real-time TFM in its instruments (such as plane wave imaging -PWI-, etc,),
  • How this cutting-edge NDT technique can enhance your NDT inspections
  • How codes and standards are accounted for directly in the system to guarantee the compliance of all setup parameters
  • How intuitive and easy it is to use TFM within the Capture software, especially with 3D and toolbox analysis.

The webinar includes a presentation of the technique, illustrates the power of the Capture interface, features a demo portion and addresses some of the most frequently-asked questions.


How to simplify welds NDT inspection using Total Focusing Method (TFM) and Phased Array UT (PAUT)

Girth-weld inspections require numerous parameters to be specified on most flaw detectors. The Gekko and Mantis user interface (Capture) solves these challenges. Using off-the-shelf probes, the NDT inspector can quickly configure his unit, scan, and analyze the collected data with confidence.

In this Webinar, you’ll learn:

  • How fast Capture makes it easy to get ready to scan using ultrasonic techniques such as Total Focusing Methods (TFM) and Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing(PAUT), how streamlined is the analysis of TFM data and how chosen approaches compare.

    (Video) [Qnex] Gekko PAUT 장비 - TOFD Calibration

  • How adding TFM to a PAUT unit overcome limitations of each technique

  • A case study: girth-weld inspection setup, data acquisition, and analysis overview


Weld Inspection Paparazzi | World Pipelines Article

This exclusive content discusses the use of ultrasound imaging techniques for pipe welding inspection of varying weld conditions.

Download the PDF



Dimensions (W × H × D)
  • 410 × 284 × 126 mm (16.1 × 11.2 × 5.0 in)
Weight (with 1 × battery)
  • 6.4 kg (14.1 lb)
Power supply
  • 15 V, 5.67 A
Batteries (hot-swap capabilities)
  • Types: 2 × Li-ion, 94 Wh capacity
  • Typical life: up to 6 hours
  • 26.4 cm (10.4 in) resistive touchscreen
  • 1024 × 768 px screen resolution
(Video) M2M Gekko Calibration Static Tutorial ( Velocity, Amplitude Balancing, Angle /Hight Check &TCG ).@1


IP rating
  • Designed for IP66
Operating temperature
  • 10–45°C (14–113°F)
Storage temperature range
  • w/ batteries: 20–60°C (-4–140°F)
  • w/o batteries: 20–70°C (-4–158°F)
  • According to MIL-STD-810G


Fast gigabit Ethernet, Wi-Fi connection with USB dongle

(Video) M2M Gekko Calibration Static Tutorial ( Velocity, Amplitude Balancing, Angle /Hight Check &TCG ).@1

1 × Micro display port

1 × IPEX PA connector

3 × axis encoder input

1 × USB 3.0, 3 × USB 2.0

LEMO® 00 UT connectors (4P/R)

I/O 12 TTL (5 V/24 V), 6 × open collectors


PAUT channel configurations: 32:128PR, 64:64PR or 64:128PR

Active aperture up to 64 elements

Linear, matrix, dual linear & dual matrix arrays

Up to 8 beam sets | Up to 2,048 focal laws

Linear, sectorial, compound scanning & CIVA-laws import

CIVA-fueled phased array calculator

True-depth, constant sound-path & projection focusing modes

On-board focal law calculator on plates, pipe systems, fillet welds, nozzles


Real-time TFM up to 128 elements 256 kpi

Refresh rate up to 110 Hz at 65 kpi

Real-time adaptive TFM (ATFM)**

All calibration wizards available

Image resolution above 4 Mpi in post-processing

(Video) GEKKO Portable Phased Array Flaw Detector December 2015

Direct, indirect and converted modes

FMC recording

8 × manual resolution levels, 1 × auto resolution setup


Hardware acquisition gates

PRF up to 40 kHz

Data flow on SSD up to 180 MB/s

Live 3D/overlay display

A-scan/peak data recording

Data compression up to 32x

Live data missed information

Data file size: limited by SDD capacity

1. 2 Fast Real time imaging TFM on GEKKO

2. Gekko PAUT

3. M2M Gekko Calibration Static Tutorial ( Velocity, Amplitude Balancing, Angle /Hight Check &TCG ).@2

4. GEKKO presentation film

5. GEKKO water-test ©M2M

6. GEKKO - Inspection of Electro Fusion Fittings

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(Video) BE THE BEST INSPECTOR YOU CAN BE - Introducing the NEW Gekko


What is the difference between UT and TOFD? ›

In practice, testing with the TOFD method is only applied by continuously moving the probe pair along the weld seam, while in traditional UT techniques the probe must be also moved perpendicular to the weld seam. Depending on the equipment the scan is performed either manually or by use of an automated manipulator.

What is the difference between TOFD and phased array? ›

While PAUT uses reflection, TOFD uses diffraction. The transducer produces pulsed ultrasonic waves, which are diffracted to various degrees by irregularities in the scanned material, then collected on the material's far side by a receiver.

How does phased array ultrasonic testing work? ›

Phased Array is an ultrasonic testing technique that uses specialized multi-element “array” transducers and pulses those elements separately in a patterned sequence called “phasing”. This phasing sequence allows wave steering, focusing, and scanning. This is all performed electronically.

What is the difference between UT and PAUT inspection? ›

A PAUT transducer uses multiple elements during a scan. Beams are emitted sequentially at multiple angles allowing PAUT to create a more detailed scan. Other UT methods, on the other hand, use a single probe to analyze an asset. By emitting multiple beams, PAUT allows for the inspection of even the most complex assets.

What is the disadvantage of TOFD? ›

A disadvantage of TOFD is that the gain must be very high, which produces a very high back wall echo and it is not suitable for coarse grained materials. There is a dead zone for defect detection under the surface. It means, defects close to the surface could not be detected.

What is TOFD in UT? ›

Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) is a reliable method of nondestructive ultrasonic testing (UT) used to look for flaws in welds. TOFD uses the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse to find the location of a reflector.

What is the basic principle of TOFD? ›

Principle of operation

In a TOFD system, a pair of ultrasonic probes sits on opposite sides of a weld. One of the probes, the transmitter, emits an ultrasonic pulse that is picked up by the probe on the other side, the receiver.

What is the frequency of the PAUT? ›

As is the case with conventional transducers, phased array probes may be designed for direct contact use, as part of an angle beam assembly with a wedge, or for immersion use with sound coupling through a water path. Transducer frequencies are most commonly in the range from 2 MHz to 10 MHz.

What are the advantages of PAUT? ›

The advantages of phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) include faster scans, a higher probability of detecting flaws and anomalies and the best possibility of performing an inspection. The PAUT method of non-destructive testing uses multiple beams to scan an asset.

What is the main disadvantage of a phased array transducer? ›

The main disadvantages of phased-array systems are that (i) they are more expensive to purchase, (ii) operation and data interpretation are more difficult and (iii) there can be greater difficulty in achieving good ultrasonic coupling due to the larger probe dimensions.

What is the difference between PAUT and TFM? ›

Summary of the Discussion of TFM vs PAUT

The principal advantage of TFM is that the entire image is displayed with focused amplitude, compared to an image produced with PAUT, which is only highly resolved in the focal area of the beam.

What is the minimum thickness for PAUT? ›

25 mm (1.0 in.).

What is TOFD testing? ›

Time of flight diffraction is an advanced non-destructive testing method used for weld inspection. Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) is one of the most reliable non-destructive testing methods in testing welds for both pre-service and in-service inspection.

How does UT inspection work? ›

In ultrasonic testing, an inspector will use a probe or some other kind of transducer to send sound waves through the material they want to test. If there are no defects in the material, the sound waves will pass through it, but if the sound waves hit a defect they will bounce off of it, indicating its presence.

What are the applications of TOFD? ›

Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) is a highly sensitive and accurate method for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of welds for defects. The TOFDPROOF project adopted an integrated approach for applying TOFD to the detection and sizing of defects in carbon steel welds at the manufacturing stage.

Who invented TOFD? ›

Maurice Silk had invented the TOFD in the late 1970's [13]. TOFD System: The TOFD technique is a fully computerized and automated system able to scan, store, and evaluate indications in terms of height, length, and position with a grade of accuracy never achieved by other ultrasonic techniques [4].

What is the thickness limitation of a TOFD? ›

A single TOFD setup is limited to a maximum thickness of about 30 - 40 mm. For thicker components, two zones with two PCS are used. They are called upper and lower TOFD zones. As the component gets thicker lower frequency probes such as 5 MHz 6 mm diameter are used for the lower zone.

What is time of flight diffraction equipment? ›

In time-of-flight diffraction (ToFD) systems, a pair of ultrasonic probes are used, sitting on opposite sides of a weld-joint or area of interest. A transmitter probe emits an ultrasonic pulse which is picked up by the receiver probe on the opposite side.

What are the basic principles of ultrasonics? ›

An electric current passes through a cable to the transducer and is applied to the crystals, causing them to deform and vibrate. This vibration produces the ultrasound beam. The frequency of the ultrasound waves produced is predetermined by the crystals in the transducer.

What are the 2 types of phased array antenna? ›

The three types of phased array antennas are 1) linear array, 2) planar array, and 3) frequency scanning array.

What are the five controls to design an array antenna? ›

Five Controls of an Array (Identical Elements)
  • Geometrical Configuration of the overall array. ...
  • Relative Displacement between the elements.
  • The excitation amplitude of the individual element.
  • The excitation Phase of the individual elements.
  • The relative pattern of the individual elements.
May 30, 2017

What is the difference between MIMO and array antenna? ›

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennas operate by breaking high data rate signals into multiple lower data rate signals in Tx mode that are recombined at the receiver. Beamforming arrays are inherently different from MIMO in that the multiple columns of dipoles work together to create a single high gain signal.

What is a paut machine? ›

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT), also known as phased array UT, is an advanced non-destructive inspection technique that uses a set of ultrasonic testing (UT) probes made up of numerous small elements.

What is the normal frequency range for the ultrasonic testing? ›

Most ultrasonic testing is available within 400 kHz to 25 MHz. These vibrations are beyond the audible range and propagate in the test material as waves of particle vibrations. Sound beams of all frequencies can penetrate fine-grained material without difficulty.

What is the frequency of phased probe? ›

Phased Array transducer has a small footprint and low frequency (its central frequency is 2Mhz – 7.5Mhz).

What are the cons of phased array technology? ›

Disadvantages of Phased Array Ultrasound Testing

While PAUT has a wide range of abilities, it's not a preferred testing method for the detection of surface cracks, metal fatigue, or bolt hole inspections compared to eddy current testing.

Why use phased array transducer? ›

Phased array transducers are used for various NDT inspections, including: Tube inspection, where multiple probes are often used to detect cracks, find laminar flaws, and measure overall thickness.

What is the advantage of phased array? ›

Phased array technology offers the ability to generate multiple sound beams focused at different areas of the weld and at different angles. Also, the ability to generate multiple sound beams allows the weld to be scanned and results in complete coverage.

What are the 4 types of transducer arrays? ›

The four main types of ultrasound transducers—linear, curvilinear, phased-array, and intracavitary—differ by crystal arrangement, size, and footprints, which determine their suitability in different imaging applications.

What are the advantages of PAUT over RT? ›

Both PAUT and RT are capable of discontinuity, or flaw detection, with high POD, RT has a limited ability to detect weld defects—e.g., lack of fusion. And while more capable with smaller, volumetric flaws, PAUT enables penetration of much thicker materials.

How many elements are in a phased array transducer? ›

A phased array ultrasound transducer is typically 2-3 cm long, consisting of 64-128 elements.

What is TOFD in ultrasonic testing? ›

TOFD – Time-of-Flight Diffraction – is an ultrasonic technique which measures the time of flight of a pulse as it travels from a transmitting probe to a receiving probe. Divergent beams are used and it is necessary to scan the TOFD probe pair over the flaw for the technique to function correctly.

What is the advantage of TOFD? ›

Advantages of ToFD

ToFD is a single pass operation, not amplitude dependent and very accurate for sizing of vertical defects. The technique is found to be substantially more accurate in sizing the height of defects than conventional pulse echo techniques, which are based on echo amplitude.

What is the use of TOFD? ›

Time of flight diffraction is an advanced non-destructive testing method used for weld inspection. Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) is one of the most reliable non-destructive testing methods in testing welds for both pre-service and in-service inspection.

What is the principle of TOFD? ›

Basic principle of TOFD. The most significant distinction between TOFD and the other UT methods is that it monitors only forward-scattered diffracted energies from the tips of defects rather than reflected ultrasonic energies. Two wide beam angle probes are used in transmitter-receiver mode.

What are the two types of ultrasonic testing? ›

Ultrasonic testing can be performed using two basic methods – pulse-echo and through-transmission.

What are the three types of waves used in ultrasonic testing? ›

Several wave modes of vibration are used in ultrasonic inspection. The most common are longitudinal, shear, and Rayleigh (surface) waves. Ultrasonic waves are very similar to light waves in that they can be reflected, refracted, and focused.

What is the lateral wave in the TOFD? ›

The lateral wave is simply the compression wave travelling parallel to the flat surface. If it is assumed to be travelling parallel to the flat surface (between the Tx and Rx probes) its refracted angle is therefore 90°.

How far can guided waves effectively propagate? ›

Pipes can be considered as one-dimensional structures along which the energy of axisymmetric guided ultrasonic wave modes propagates with little loss of energy, and propagation distances of up to 100 m have been achieved (Cawley et al.

How does eddy current testing work? ›

In eddy current testing, a coil carrying an AC current is placed close to the specimen surface, or around the specimen. The current in the coil generates circulating eddy currents in the specimen close to the surface and these in turn affect the current in the coil by mutual induction.


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